A NEW THEORY ABOUT THE EARTHQUAKES
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THIS IS MY SPECIAL RESEARCH ABOUT THE REASONS OF EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANIC ACTIVITIES
THE GRAVITY EFFECTS OF THE SUN AND THE MOON ON THE
EARTH IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM




Scientists still do not appear to understand sufficiently that all earth sciences must contribute evidence toward unveiling the state of our planet in earlier times, and that the truth of the matter can only be reached by combing all this evidence. . . It is only by combing the information furnished by all the earth sciences that we can hope to determine 'truth' here, that is to say, to find the picture that sets out all the known facts in the best arrangement and that therefore has the highest degree of probability. Further, we have to be prepared always for the possibility that each new discovery, no matter what science furnishes it, may modify the conclusions we draw.



NEWTONIAN LAW OF THE GRAVITY
All matter attracts all other matter with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance
between them.
The gravity is responsible for the motion of the Moon around the Earth and the planets around the Sun.

Gravity Sliding

Before the evidence for convection became known, geophysicists tried to explain plate movement as do to their own inherent properties ie. gravity force. Hales (1969) suggested that the plates were moving away from the mid-oceanic ridges. Isac's and Molnar(1969), after the discovery that the plates were sinking into the asthenosphere along the trenches, suggested that since the overhanging part of the plate was colder than the surrounding mantle, it would also be denser, thus, a downward gravity force might cause the horizontal movement of the plate. Runcorn (1974) showed that by using magnitude calculations, it is possible a sufficient force would be produced. Therefore, this theory cannot be rejected on the grounds of magnitude, but should be rejected because it is impossible to explain how the process began and it does not enable any understanding of plate movements. Morgan (1972) rejected this theory, but on the grounds that small trench bounded plates, such as the Cocos, do not move faster than the larger Pacific Plate as would be expected.

Convection

In contrast to the Plume theory of convection (Morgan, 1972), Runcorn (1980) promotes the theory of large-scale convection. He believes the only way the continents and plates could move in the regular way they have for the past hundred million years is by convection ion a large scale cell structure. This convection pattern changed with time from a one cell, to a two cell, to a three cell and then to a four cell pattern; thereby, explaining the breakup of Gondwanaland and Laurasia (Pangea) in only the last 150 million years. Evidence for this is sparse, however, one reason for large scale convection is that the earth formed by accretion with the heavy elements, such as iron, sinking to the center forming a core (Urey, 1951); thus, the core may be continually growing. Runcorn (1980) says it is expected there would be a greater geothermal gradient in the lithosphere above the rising convection currents, thus, it would be possible to find the size and location of the currents. However, the time constant for the lithosphere 100m thick is about 100 million years in which time a plate would have moved a considerable distance relative to the origin of a heat source.

Runcorn (1980) uses the shape of the geoid to support this theory. He says, "if a planet departs from hydrostatic equilibrium on a large scale then there are only two possible explanations. Either, density anomalies were acquired by the planet in its early history or the distortion of the planet is being produced dynamically". In otherwards, "…the geoid is the primary evidence for convection patterns in the mantle". Jeffrey's (1975) has discovered the Earth's gravitational field departs from the accepted hydrostatic equilibrium model. However, the shape of the geoid and its relationship remain open to interpretation.


THE ORBIT OF THE EARTH AROUND THE SUN
Conclusion

Criticism can be fired at all the theories expounded to explain the mechanism of plate tectonics. Therefore, it is best to choose the theory, which contains only minor holes and explains the mechanism in a simple, clear and distinct way.

Convective plume theory, developed by Le Pichon (1968), Morgan (1968), Runcorn (1980) and others has three major flaws: (1) plate boundaries are not distinct; (2) the condition that each plate having its own accretion and consumption boundary, as for the case for the African Plate, is violated; and (3) if the plates are rigid, as assumed, deformation should have occurred in bottle necks where part of a plate margin was subducted and the rest was not. Of course, the presence of island arcs, subduction zones, hot spots and basalt relationships support the convective-plume theory.

The expansion theory of Cary has major flaws in it, among others, these are: (1) that the earth was assumed to consist entirely of continental sialic crust; and (2) that a rapid expansion at a rate of 8mm/year had to occur in the last 200my; and (3) that the earth had radius 76% of its present radius when Pangea broke up.

The slow-expanding earth theory of Creer (1965) and others is more plausible but lacks evidence. It does not suggest why the earth would expand, why continental drift began so late in the earth's history or where the energy source for expansion is derived from.

THE EARTH'S ORBIT
SOLAR GRAVITY DECREASES THE SPEED OF THE EARTH FROMDECEMBER TO JUNE AND INCREASES FROM JUNE TO DECEMBER. THE EARTH MAKES AN ACCELERATED MOTION AROUND THE SUN